What is IPO?

IPO meaning

The full form of an IPO is an initial public offer (IPO) means the method of giving shares of a non-public corporation to the general public in a very new stock issue. an initial public offering permits a corporation to boost capital from public investors. The transition from a private to a public company may be a vital time for private investors to completely understand gains from their investment because it generally includes a share premium for current private investors. Meanwhile, it also permits public investors to participate in the offering.

History of IPOs 

 The term initial public offering (IPO) has been a buzzword on Wall Street and among investors for many years. The Dutch are attributable to conducting the primary trendy IPO by offering shares of the Dutch East India Company to the overall public. 

 Since then, IPOs are used as a way for corporations to lift capital from public investors through the issuance of public share possession 

What is an IPO? 

 When a private company decides to go public, it will therefore by offering its shares to investors via an Initial Public Offering (IPO). it's the primary sale of shares by a corporation to the general public, and institutional investors. An initial public offering market is classified as a primary market wherever companies look to boost future capital.

IPO definition

 IPO is defined, as the process by that a private company turns public and gets its name listed on the stock market. The management of such corporations is assured of their business model and expects that the IPO can elicit the interest of retail and alternative strategic investors whereas conjointly being able to undergo the trials of the regulator. 

 Before we tend to discuss how an IPO works in India, let’s perceive what makes a corporation eligible for an IPO. For listing on the National stock exchange (NSE) or the Bombay stock exchange (BSE), a corporation ought to have a minimum paid capital of Rs 10 crore. Besides, the post-issue market capitalization mustn't be below Rs25 crore. 

 How will IPO work in India? 

A company progressing to go public hires an underwriter to handle the IPO. The underwriter and therefore the company calculate the financial details of the IPO in the underwriting agreement. Later, together with the underwriting agreement, they file the registration statement with the regulator. SEBI scrutinizes the disclosed info and once verified allots a date to announce the IPO. 

 The enhanced transparency and share listing reliability may also be a factor in serving to it get higher terms once s when a corporation reaches a stage in its growth method wherever it believes it's mature enough for the trials of SEBI rules together with the advantages and responsibilities to public shareholders, it'll begin to advertise its interest in going public 

IPO is largely an instrument in the capital market to boost cash for the companies. IPO recently are used to give exit to the first investors in the company. the method of IPO is mentioned below. 

a) the corporate searching for an IPO appoints a Lead Manager named LM is accountable for raising cash on behalf of the company. 

b) The LM prepares the document referred to as DRHP (Draft Red Herring Prospectus). This document contains details like how much cash the Company is raising, what's the target of the IPO, what's the business model of the corporate, who it is peers within the market, who is that the management of the company etc. In short, it contains each detail concerning the corporate. 

c) This DRHP is then submitted for SEBI approval. 

d) Once SEBI offers approval, the corporate has to bring IPO within one year. 

e) Then finally an RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is stuffed before the particular launch of the initial public offering. 

f) Then IPO is opened for three days for the investors to use. 

g) Finally, after six days of closing, the initial offering get listed on BSE and NSE.

Process  of  initial public offering or IPO process

 An IPO comprehensively consists of 2 components. the first is the pre-marketing phase of the offering, whereas the second is the initial public offering itself. once a corporation is fascinated by an IPO, it'll advertise to underwriters by soliciting non-public bids or it may also create a public statement to come up with interest. 

 The underwriters conduct the IPO process and are chosen by the corporate. a company could opt for one or many underwriters to manage completely different elements of the initial offering process collaboratively. The underwriters are concerned with each facet of the initial public offering due diligence, document preparation, filing, marketing, and issuance. 

 Hope this is the process known as to how an initial public offering works in India 

IPO Process Steps: 

 Step 1: Hiring an Underwriter or Investment Bank 

 To start the initial public offering process, the corporate can take the assistance of monetary consultants, like investment banks. The underwriters assure the company about the capital being raised and act as intermediaries between the company and its investor. 

 Step 2: Registration For initial public offering 

 This IPO step involves the preparation of a registration statement together with the draft prospectus, also referred to as Red Herring Prospectus (RHP). Submission of RHP is necessary, as per the Companies Act. This document includes all the obligatory disclosures as per the SEBI and companies Act. 

 Step 3: Verification by SEBI: 

 Market regulator, SEBI then verifies the revealing of facts by the company. If the application is approved, the corporate can announce a date for its IPO. 

 Step 4: Making an application to the stock exchange 

 The company currently should create an application to the securities market for floating its initial issue. 

 Step 5: Making a Buzz by Roadshows 

 Before an IPO opens to the general public, the corporate endeavours to form a buzz within the market through roadshows. Over an amount period, the executives and employees of the corporate can advertise the upcoming IPO across the country. 

 Step 6:  IPO Valuation 

 The company will currently initiate an evaluation of IPO either through fixed price IPO or by Book Binding offering. within the case of fastened price offering, the price of the company’s stocks is declared ahead. 

 Step 7: Allotment of Shares 

 Once the initial public offering price is finalized, the corporate together with the underwriters can verify the number of shares to be assigned to every investor. 

 Other Factors That the company contemplates Before the Initial Public offering process Is Complete: 

 Advantages of filing an IPO 

  •  There are several advantages of a corporation electing to alter its status from a privately held to a public-listed company: 
  •  The opportunity to boost long-run capital from a wider pool of investors. 
  •  Mergers and acquisitions are easier for listed companies 
  •  Listed firms gain visibility. They realize areas in the newspapers as investors keep searching for opportunities. 

Disadvantages of filing an initial public offering 

  •  Listed corporations are needed to form their monetary statements and account receptive to the general public and adjust to market regulations. 
  •  The company conjointly should bear a lot of prices for accounting, marketing, and legal issues and service 

Before investing in an initial public offering, Things you ought to understand 

  •   If you invest in an IPO, your investments are directly joined to the profits of that company. 
  •  This type of investment carries a higher risk and may provide large returns too. 
  •  You should be aware that a company that gives its shares to the public is not indebted to reimburse the capital. 
  •  Usually, it's smart to possess some expertise before investing in an IPO. Taking a recommendation from a private finance manager before investing could assist you to avoid trouble. 
  •  You require a Demat account to take a position in an IPO. You'll be able to search for a brokerage that offers a free Demat account and begin investing. 


 An IPO could be a closely watched event. It should be a large profit-making chance or prove to be a loss-making investment. IPOs are known for having volatile opening day returns, which may attract investors trying to profit from the discounts.

Over the long run, an IPO's price typically settles into a gradual value. You'll be able to open a free Demat account and bet on the most recent initial public offering touching the markets. 

Frequently Asked Questions

Is it smart to invest in an IPO in India? 

IPOs are a superb source of constructing cash in India. IPO means Initial Public offering. This suggests that whenever an organization is listing its shares on BSE or NSE it needs to return up with an initial public offering. currently, the question is whether the investor makes cash in IPO. Generally, investors apply in the IPO and there's a lottery system for retailers. If the investors are lucky and therefore the stock is nice, they'll keep cash on listing day. 

How is the initial public offering priced? 

IPO evaluation depends upon several factors. In DRHP (Draft Red Herring Prospectus), the draft that is filed to SEBI for approval of IPO has the column whereby Lead managers give the idea of the issue price. They compare the price of a stock with the listed companies and take a look to search out the right price at those investors also create cash. The value of a stock is also dependent upon the prevailing condition of the stock exchange. If the market is in bull mode, the IPO is often priced higher and vice-versa. The value of IPO also relies upon the factors like monopoly of the business, impressive management, growing business, etc.