What is dividend?

What is a Dividend? 

  A dividend is the issuing of some of a company's earnings to a category of its shareholders, as determined by the company's board of directors. Common shareholders of dividend-paying corporations are usually eligible as long as they own the stock before the ex-dividend date. Dividends are also paid out as cash or in the kind of extra stock.

How a Dividend Works 

 A dividend’s price is set on a per-share basis and is to be paid equally to all or any shareholders of an equivalent category (common, preferred, etc.). The payment should be approved by the Board of directors. 

When a dividend is declared, it'll then be paid on an exact date, called the payable date. 

Key Points

  • A dividend is the distribution of company profits to eligible shareholders.
  • Dividend payments and amounts square measure determined by a company's board of directors.
  • Dividends are payments created by public listed companies to reward investors for golf shot their money into the venture.
  • Announcements of dividend payouts square measure typically in the course of a proportional increase or decrease in a company's stock price.
  • Several companies do not pay dividends and instead retain earnings to be invested into the company.


Steps for how dividend works

  •  The company gives profits and retained earnings 
  •  The administration considers some excess profits should be    paid out to shareholders (instead of being reinvested) 
  •  The board approves the planned dividend 
  •  The company announces the dividend (the worth per share, the date once it'll be paid, the record date, etc.) 
  •  The dividend is paid to shareholders 

Types of Dividends 

There are various types of dividends an organization will pay to its shareholders. Below may be a list and a short description of the foremost common varieties that shareholders receive. 


This can be the payment of actual cash from the corporate to the shareholders and is the most typical type of payment. The payment is sometimes created as electronic payments via wire transfer, however, can also be paid by check or cash. 


Stock dividends are paid out to shareholders by supplying new shares in the company. These are paid out pro-rata, based on the number of shares the investor already owns. 


An organization isn't limited to paying distributions to its shareholders within the type of cash or shares. An organization can also pay alternative assets like investment securities, physical assets, and property, though this is often not a standard practice. 


A special dividend is one that’s paid outside a company’s regular policy (i.e., quarterly, annual, etc.). it's sometimes the result of having excess cash to be had for one reason or another. 


It refers to the class of shareholders (i.e., common shareholders), not what’s truly being received as payment. 


It also refers to the category of shareholders receiving the payment. 


other, less common, types of financial assets are paid out as dividends, like options, warrants, shares in a new spin-out company, etc. 


Dividend-Paying corporations 

 Larger, competent corporations with additional certain profits are usually the most effective dividend payers. These corporations tend to issue regular dividends as a result they obtain to maximize stockholder wealth in ways that are except for normal growth. Corporations within the following business sectors are determined to be maintaining a daily record of dividend payments are  Basic materials, Oil and gas, Banks and monetary, Healthcare and prescribed drugs, Utilities 

Important Dividend Dates 

Dividend payments follow a written account order of events, and therefore the associated dates area unit necessary to determine that shareholders qualify to receive the dividend payment. 

  1.  Announcement date: Dividends are declared by company management on the announcement date (or declaration date) and should be approved by the shareholders before they will be paid. 
  2.  Ex-dividend date: The date on that the dividend eligibility expires is termed the ex-dividend date or just the ex-date. for example, if a stock has an ex-date of Tue Mar 5, then shareholders who buy the stock on or then day won't qualify to induce the dividend as a result of they're buying it on or after the dividend termination date. Shareholders who own the stock one business day before the ex-date that is on Fri, Mar 1, or earlier—will receive the dividend. 
  3.  Record date: The record date is the cutoff date, established by the corporate to see that the shareholder's area unit is eligible to receive a dividend or distribution. 
  4.  Payment date: the corporate issues the payment of the dividend on the payment date, that is once the cash gets credited to investors' accounts.

Impact of Dividends on Share price 

  •  Because dividends are irreversible, their payments generally cause cash to go out of the company’s books and business accounts forever. Therefore, dividend payments impact share worth, which can rise on the announcement some by the number of the dividends declared and then decline by an analogous amount at the opening session of the ex-dividend date. 
  •  For example, an organization that's trading at Rs 160 per share declares a Rs 2 dividend on the announcement date. As before long because the news becomes public, the share worth shoots up by around Rs 2 and hits 162. Say the stock trades at Rs 63 one business day before the ex-dividend date. On the ex-dividend date, it's adjusted by Rs 2 and begins mercantilism at Rs 61 at the beginning of the mercantilism session on the ex-dividend date, as a result, anyone buying on the ex-dividend date won't receive the dividend. 

Why do Corporations Pay Dividends 

  •   Companies pay dividends for a range of reasons. These reasons will have completely different implications and interpretations for investors. 
  • Dividends are expected by the shareholders as a present for their trust in a company. The corporate management may aim to honor this sentiment by delivering a sturdy track record of dividend payments. Dividend payments replicate positively on an organization and help maintain investors’ trust. Dividends also are most popular among shareholders as a result they're treated as tax-free income for shareholders in several countries. 



Dividends can signal that a corporation has stable cash flow and is nice at generating profits. They'll also offer investors continual revenue. Dividend payouts may facilitate offering insight into a company’s intrinsic value. They permit cash to be created out there to shareholders, which provides them the freedom to derive additional utility out of it. They can invest in another monetary security and reap higher returns, or spend on leisure and different utilities. To boot, prices like taxes, brokerages, and indivisible shares build dividends a substantial utility within the world.


What is a Dividend?

A dividend could be a distribution of cash or stock to a category of shareholders in a very company. Typically, dividends are drawn from a company’s retained earnings; but, issuing dividends with negative maintained income continues to be attainable but less common. Dividends carry vital dates, that confirm whether or not shareholders can receive dividend payout.

What is an example of a Dividend?

When a corporation contains a healthy cushion of net profits, it should decide to share the wealth with its investors. In turn, the board of directors could commit to issuing a 5% dividend per share, annually. If the company’s shares were priced at RS100, the dividend would be priced at Rs 5, and if the dividends were issued every quarter, everyone would be valued at Rs1.25.